Italian sailors knew of America 150 years before Columbus
Italian sailors were aware of the continent some 150 years before Christopher Columbus set sail for it.
Entitled Cronica universalis and authored by Galvaneus Flamma, the work is written in Latin. In it, Galvaneus attempts to detail the history of the entire world, from its creation to the 14th century.
"We are in the presence of the first reference to the American continent, albeit in an embryonic form, in the Mediterranean area," says Paolo Chiesa, a professor in the Department of Literary Studies, Philology, and Linguistics at the University of Milan.
Galvaneus writes about a land called Marckalada, west of Greenland, which matches up with the Markland region mentioned by several Icelandic sources. It most probably refers to modern-day Labrador or Newfoundland.
The thinking is that the friar heard about Marckalada or Markland through contacts and information passed on from Genoa, on the Italian coast just south of Milan. It raises the question of exactly what Columbus might have been expecting to find when he set sail to the west in 1492.
While the document is limited by the knowledge of the time it suggests giants roam Marckalada, for example it fits in with other accounts of this North American region, such as the Grœnlendinga Saga, a significant Icelandic text.
"What makes the passage [about Marckalada] exceptional is its geographical provenance: not the Nordic area, as in the case of the other mentions, but northern Italy," Chiesa writes in the study.
"The Marckalada described by Galvaneus is 'rich in trees', not unlike the wooded Markland of the Grœnlendinga Saga, and animals live there."
This is in contrast to descriptions of other lands in the North at the time, like Greenland was known to be "bleak and barren", despite there being no evidence Italian seafarers ventured there. ■