POST Online Media Lite Edition



 

Scientists use 4D scanning to predict behaviour of volcanoes

Staff Writer |
Scientists are using the latest in 4D technology to predict the behaviour of lava flows and its implications for volcanic eruptions.

Article continues below




The results explain why some lava flows can cover kilometres in just a few hours, whilst others travel more slowly during an eruption, highlighting the hazard posed by fast-moving flows which often pose the most danger to civilian populations close to volcanoes.

The research, which is being led by The University of Manchester, is studying the processes which happen during crystallisation in basaltic magmas using 4D synchrotron X-ray microtomography.

It is the first time this kind of 4D scanning technology has been used for investigating crystallisation during volcanic eruptions and for simulating the behaviour of a natural lava flow. The study has been published in Nature Scientific Reports.

The team, led by Prof Mike Burton, Chair of Volcanology at the University, monitored crystallisation in magmas, a fundamental process that drives eruptions and controls different kinds of volcanic activity.

Using this new and novel approach and technology they can, for the first time, watch the crystals grow in 3D in real-time, simulating the behaviour of lava flows once a volcano has erupted. The process is similar to scenes recently witnessed at Kilauea in Hawaii.

Prof Burton explains: “During volcanic eruptions small crystals grow within magma. These crystals can greatly change the way magma flows. Simply put, the more crystals there are the slower the eruption will be which also reduces the speed and distance travelled by lava flows.”

“The fewer crystals present in the lava means the eruption will speed up, potentially becoming more powerful and devastating. Our research and this new approach open an entirely new frontier in the study of volcanic processes.”

To study the rate of crystal growth the team set up a sample from a real eruption in a high temperature cell, before performing X-ray CAT scans whilst controlling the temperature of the magma.

This allowed the team to visualise the formation and growth of crystals, and measure how quickly they grew.

Using this method and technology the researchers can collect hundreds of 3D images during a single experiment. This data is then used in complex, numerical models to fully characterise the behaviour of volcanic eruptions more accurately.

Dr Margherita Polacci, from Manchester’s School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and study’s lead author, said: “Being able to more accurately predict the behaviour of lava flows could also allow us to help relevant safety agencies devise and develop new safety strategies and actions when dealing with eruptions in populated areas.”

This isn’t the only use for such technology in Geosciences. Prof Burton added: “There are many more applications of this approach in materials science, mineral extraction and other geological processes.

“We are very excited about the prospect of extending our studies to high pressures, which we will be doing in further experiments in 2018.”


What to read next

Even trees go to sleep every night
NASA scientists recreate space dust in lab
Modern humans were in Asia 30,000 years earlier than previously though

New York: $44.4 million in assistance for struggling families with children

 
Governor Kathy Hochul announced the distribution of $44.4 million in federal pandemic funding to help struggling New Yorkers with children to cover back-to-school and early life nutritional expenses.
 
 

Latest

More evacuated as forest fire reignites in France
Disease carried by ticks kills cattle in two Kentucky counties
Ethiopia announces completion of third filling of Nile dam
Switzerland will use dogs to detect African swine fever in pigs

NEWS

15 dead in flash flood in South Korea

Canberra airport in lockdown after shots fired
Former Deutsche Bank co-CEO Anshu Jain dies
U.S.: Monsoon and heavy rain this weekend
Monkeypox is racist name, WHO says and will change disease name
Former rector and dean in Kragujevac, Serbia arrested over 45 suspicious medical diplomas
 

BUSINESS

Changuleh oil field well ahead of schedule

Drought left Germany's Rhine River with just 30cm of water
Fifth caravan of grain ships departs from Ukraine
U.S. oil, gas rig count falls for second week in a row
Six Gulf of Mexico oil platforms shut due to pipeline leakage
First hydrogen bunkering license issued in Netherlands
 

Trending Now

Canberra airport in lockdown after shots fired

Polio identified in New York City wastewater

Vietnam thinking about $58.7-billion high-speed railway

Fisker sells out of 2023 planned production of Fisker Ocean Sport and Ultra Trims for U.S. market


POLITICS

Vietnam thinking about $58.7-billion high-speed railway

Talks ongoing between Iran and Iraq about import gas from Iran
Lukashenko: Belarus should have its own food packaging production by 2023
South Dakota Governor, colleagues ask President Biden to lift vaccine mandate on international travel
Governor Ron DeSantis encourages veterans to apply for temporary teaching certificates
Commission approves modifications to an existing Polish scheme to support companies
 

Today We Recommend

One million people displaced by drought in Somalia


Highlights 

Iran tanker to return after failed U.S. attempt to steal cargo

Abbott to create 1,000 new jobs in Kilkenny and Donegal, Ireland

WebstaurantStore expands operations in Georgia, creates 213 new jobs in Bryan County


COMPANIES

Fisker sells out of 2023 planned production of Fisker Ocean Sport and Ultra Trims for U.S. market

SAS secures $700 million for restructuring
Arbitrator rules in favor of Daiichi Sankyo in dispute with Seagen
SpaceX launches rocket carrying 46 Starlink internet satellites
Ontario welcomes $14.8 million investment to create good-paying manufacturing jobs
Rogers, Shaw and Quebecor sign definitive agreement for sale of Freedom Mobile
 

CAREERS

Daseke appoints Bruce Blaise to board

Island Pacific appoints Herman Chiu as CFO
Horizon Bancorp appoints Thomas M. Prame as president
Encora appoints Deepak Bhandari as EVP, head of corporate development
Firmenich: Maurizio Clementi interim president of taste and beyond division
Joyce Farms appoints two new leaders
 

ECONOMY

Germany's trade surplus continues to shrink

Spain's inflation hits 10.8 pct, highest in 38 years
U.S. export prices in July post largest decline in 27 months
Slovak industry slowed down, production fell by 5.7% year-on-year in June
Ghana's inflation rises to 31.7 percent in July
Georgia shatters investment and job records in FY22
 

EARNINGS

DEWA Q2 revenue increased

Virgin Orbit Q2 revenue $0.0 million
Illumina Q2 revenue up 3%
Canada Goose Q1 2023 revenue grew 24.2%
RWE adjusted EBITDA grows, will invest €5 billion in green strategy
METRO Q3 sales increased by 27.2%
 

OP-ED

Micromanaging is the worst enemy of efficiency and teamwork

Niger set to monetize massive gas reserves through Saharan natural gas pipeline
Putting the brakes on EV folly that choked the market
Oil discovery in Kavango Basin may mean huge benefits for Namibians
Cape Town and Dubai battle over Africa's energy future
Is America going to lose its superpower status?
 

AGRIFISH

First ship with corn, soybeans arrives in Italy from Ukraine

Portugal announces 500,000 euros financial aid to farmers
Ireland: Retail sales and domestic potato consumption plateaued again
Thousands of lifeless fish in Germany and Poland
Food prices in New Zealand increase 7.4 percent annually
Colorado State Veterinarian confirms equine West Nile Virus case in Weld County
 

LEADERSHIP

If company overcomes post-IPO innovation slump, it will survive longer

62% of consumers will stop buying from brands that compromise products to cut costs
Companies must invest to avoid supply chain scandal or pay the price in lost consumers
How awards, recognition decrease inventors' creativity
Keeping employees is harder than ever. And we don't have good news
How much is 'great resignation' costing companies?
 

CRIME

Ex-company director from Solihull to pay £11,200 for exporting banned waste

South Korea fines 11 companies $197.5 million for price fixing
Healthcare workers in Italy put at risk due to aggravated fraud relating to protective face masks and suits
South Africa's Special Tribunal orders freeze of Transnet executives' assets
New York City announces settlement with Chipotle Mexican Grill securing $20m for 13,000 workers
PwC fined $2 million over BT audit after fraud discovered in Italy
 

Magazine

TRAVEL

The SureStay Hotel by Best Western Rockford East opens in Rockford, Illinois

Avani Chaweng Samui Hotel & Beach Club opens in Thailand
Buffalo Bill is coming to Manitowoc with his Wild West show
Pullman Doha West Bay Hotel opens in Qatar
DoubleTree by Hilton hotel opens in Malaysia
Great Dorset Chilli Festival, the hottest festival in UK
 

SEA, LAND, AIR

New Ford Maverick Tremor Off-Road Package revealed

Porsche unveils newest generation of 911 GT3 R
2023 Subaru Crosstrek sells like hotcakes
New Mercedes‑Benz GLC, at home on any terrain
GMC unleashes new 2023 Sierra 1500 AT4X AEV Edition
First BMW M3 Touring presented
 

DESIGN

Clean and luxurious men's watches

Nobody's Child, everybody's favorite
Freddy WR.UP, pants that hug you in all the right places
Stylishly luxurious house design
Great design ideas that might not work for you
Garden mirrors, explore new views of your garden
 

GADGETS

Pro-Ject X8 turntable, superior noise suppression and great sound

Shure MV7 professional dynamic microphone now available in new limited-edition color
Forget streaming services, use McIntosh MR89 to enjoy AM/FM music
Infinix NOTE 12 PRO, first smartphone powered by MediaTek Helio G99
MW75 active noise-cancelling headphones, variety of new features
Parasound JC 1+ mono power amplifier by John Curl, pure delight
 

HEALTH

Pfizer: Positive top-line results from phase 3 study of 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants

Polio identified in New York City wastewater
Canada deploys over 99,000 doses of Imvamune vaccine on monkeypox response
Poland to launch 2nd COVID-19 booster for medical staff next week
Novartis says two children died after receiving gene therapy Zolgensma
FDA approves Roche's Xofluza to treat influenza in children aged 5 years and older
 

MEANTIME

California weather is trending toward extremes

Swiss mountain pass ice to melt completely within weeks
ZOO gorillas invented new sound to communicate with humans
Trees store carbon even after harvested
Subsurface water on Mars defy expectations
First detection of gas in circumplanetary disk